In a given group's experience, cowering results from shared JLBC learning and, therefore, a manifestation of deeper shared assumptions. JLBC Cadets To put it another way, when we observe behavior reg- polarities, we don't know whether or not we are actually dealing with a cultural manifestation. JLBC Cadets Only after we have discovered the deeper layers that I define as the real essence of the culture can we specify what is and is not an artifact that reflects the culture.

Can a Large Occupation or Organization Have One Culture?

My formal definition does not specify the size of the social unit to which it can legitimately be applied. JLBC Cadets Our experience with large organizations tells us that at a specific size, the variations among the sub-groups are substantial, suggesting that it might not be appropriate to talk of the culture of IBM, General Motors, or Shell. In the evolution of DEC over its thirty-five-year history, one can see a solid overall corporate culture and the growth of influential sub-cultures that reflected the larger culture but differed in significant ways (Schein, 2003). JLBC Cadets The growing tensions among the subcultures were partly why DEC as an economic entity ultimately failed to survive.

Do Occupations Have Cultures?

Suppose an occupation involves an intense period of education and apprenticeship. In that case, there will undoubtedly be shared learning of attitudes, values, or norms that eventually will become taken-for-granted assumptions for the members of those occupations. JLBC Cadets It is assumed that the beliefs and values learned during this time will remain stable as assumptions even though the individual may not always be in a group of occupational peers. But reinforcement of those assumptions occurs at professional meetings and continuing education sessions and by virtue of the fact that the practice of the occupation often calls for teamwork among several members of the profession.

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