Access control involves controlling and monitoring people (and property) entering and leaving premises. The security function in access control includes minimizing unauthorized access to promises. In addition, security is expected to know who (and what) is on-premises with authorization to enable proper response in an emergency or the event that someone at the facility must be located promptly.


The two main types of access control are physical barriers and direct screening of people.

Physical Barriers

Barriers can be either natural (environmental) or structural (fabricated). Barriers define boundaries, limit (prevent or delay) access control traffic flow.

􏰁Perimeter security:􏰂 A 􏰁fence􏰂 (natural or fabricated) surrounding the outside of the building.

Physical perimeter security protects large areas and buildings (or building complexes). The idea is to surround the area with a barrier while still assuring that the buildings themselves remain exposed and visible.

Security Guards may patrol perimeter barriers, looking for breaks or intrusions and deter unauthorized access. The 􏰁second line􏰂 of perimeter security is the building or structure itself, which usually consists of six sides: Roof, floor, and four walls. The roof is typically the most vulnerable point of unusual entry on a building. Windows are also a point of potential entry to which security Guards must pay special attention.

Window reinforcements include bars and grates, tempered glass, laminated glass, reinforced glass, and plastic (or plastic coated) glass. Windows may also be alarmed with foil, vibrator, or breakage alarms.

Doors require special security attention since they are the obvious and most common entry point into buildings. Door construction influences security. Some doors are stronger than others. Fire codes often require that doors open outward. Gates may also be alarmed or employ other mechanical or electronic access control devices.

Locks. Locks may also secure doors. JLBC Cadets There are two main types of locks: mechanical and electronic. Mechanical locks consist of a bolt or latch, tumblers, and the key (or another unlocking device).

Master keying is when one key (or set of keys) will open more than one lock. To avoid compromising security, master keys must be kept strictly accounted for.

Essential control is a vital part of access security and can include inventories of all keys for all locks and logs of who has been issued which keys.

Lock bolts and latches: Spring-loaded latches 􏰁throw􏰂 the bolt by spring power. These are of minimal security use.

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